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Assessment of Eutrophication Abatement Measures Across Land-based Sources, Inland, Coastal and Marine Waters

Assessment of Eutrophication Abatement Measures Across Land-based Sources, Inland, Coastal and Marine Waters

Eutrophication remains a major problem in Europe's waters despite substantial management efforts in the last decades. This report provides an overview of measures to reduce nutrient pollution from point and diffuse sources, as well as an analysis of the implementation of European policies for eutrophication abatement of inland, coastal and marine waters, in particular the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Examples of eutrophication abatement strategies in eight case study regions are presented. The case studies are analyzed in view of different aspects such as governance issues, the role of research, stakeholder participation and the choice of measures and funding instruments. The report concludes with an analysis of progress achieved and remaining implementation gaps. It's available for download.

Examples of eutrophication abatement strategies in eight case study regions are presented in more detail: Denmark, Finland, the Po river basin, the Ebro river basin, the Rhine river basin, Lake Constance, the Danube river basin and the Baltic Sea. The case studies are analysed in view of different aspects such as governance issues, the role of research, stakeholder participation, and the choice of measures and funding instruments. The report concludes with an analysis of progress achieved and remaining implementation gaps.

Strong and coordinated actions are needed in the future to combat the eutrophication problem in order to reach the ambitious goals of WFD and MSFD. This includes better cross-sectoral integration of water policies, stronger enforcement, burden sharing between sectors, innovative instruments, and alternative concepts such as payment for ecosystem services.


Citation

Ibisch, R., Austnes, K., Borchardt D., Boteler, B., Leujak, W., Lukat, E., Rouillard, J., Schmedtje, U., Solheim, A.L., Westphal, K. (2016). European assessment of eutrophication abatement measures across land-based sources, inland, coastal and marine waters. European Topic Centre on Inland, Coastal and Marine Waters (ETC-iCM), UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany.

Language
English
Author(s)
Ralf Ibisch, Katja Westphal, Dietrich Borchardt (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH – UFZ)
Anne Lyche Solheim, Kari Austnes (NIVA)
Wera Leujak, Ursula Schmedtje (UBA)
Publisher
Year
2016
Published In
ETC/ICM Technical Reports
ISBN
978-3-944280-55-4
Dimension
96 pp.
Project ID
916-10
Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Eutrophication – still a problem in Europe's waters
1.2 Eutrophication and sources of nutrient pollution
1.3 Motivation for this report
2 EUROPEAN POLICIES AND OTHER LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORKS
2.1 An overview of European policies for eutrophication abatement
2.2 Key features of European policies for eutrophication abatement
2.3 National policies for eutrophication abatement
3 OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS FOR EUTROPHICATION ABATEMENT
3.1 Characterising objectives and targets for eutrophication abatement
3.1.1 The process of setting objectives and their importance for policy implementation
3.1.2 Setting eutrophication targets in-line with the WFD good ecological status objective
3.2 Setting nutrient standards as targets for eutrophication abatement
3.2.1 Nutrient standards in rivers and lakes
3.2.2 Nutrient standards in coastal and marine waters
3.2.3 Aligning nutrient boundaries for freshwater and saline waters
3.3 Use of quantitative nutrient load reduction targets
3.3.1 Nutrient load reduction targets in rivers and lakes
3.3.2 Nutrient load reduction targets in coastal and marine waters
4 INDICATORS TO MEASURE CHANGE IN STATE AND PRESSURES
4.1 Indicators as management tools
4.2 Pressure indicators
4.3 State indicators
4.4 Impact indicators
5 MEASURES AND MANAGEMENT PLANNING TO REDUCE NUTRIENT INPUT
5.1 Establishment of Programmes of Measures – from quantitative targets to measures
5.2 Nutrient reduction measures in European policies
5.3 Measures to reduce nutrient input form point sources
5.4 Measures to reduce nutrient input from diffuse sources
5.5 Measures to reduce internal nutrient inputs and enhance self-purification
5.6 Supplementary instruments
5.7 Success of eutrophication abatement measures and policies
5.7.1 Abatement of phosphorus pollution
5.7.2 Abatement of nitrate pollution
5.7.3 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
6 LESSONS LEARNT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES IN EUTROPHICATION ABATEMENT
6.1 Lessons learnt from case studies
6.2 Implementation gaps and future perspectives
ANNEX 1 CASE STUDIES ON EUTROPHICATION ABATEMENT IN EUROPE

Keywords
Monitoring, environmental assessment, indicators, Water Framework Directive (WFD), Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Denmark, Finland, the Po river basin, the Ebro river basin, the Rhine river basin, Lake Constance, the Danube river basin, Baltic Sea, Europe, case studies