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The Social Dimension of Biodiversity Policy

The Social Dimension of Biodiversity Policy

The scope of this study is to make a progressive contribution to a better understanding of the social aspects of biodiversity as well as of the disproportionate risk of biodiversity loss to certain groups of people across countries in different world regions.

More specifically the study:

  • identifies the main economic sectors and social groups impacted by loss of biodiversity, the number of jobs at risk and their geographical location;
  • provides tools to quantitatively assess the impact of biodiversity loss on the economy of vulnerable groups, with particular focus on the rural poor; and
  • develop policy guidelines to manage the trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity conservation and job enhancement in an efficient way and to include biodiversity issues in related policy fields (such as development, agriculture, forestry and trade).

Citation

Nunes, P.A.L.D., Ding, H., Boteler, B., ten Brink, P., Cottee-Jones, E., Davis, M., Ghermandi, A.,Kaphengst, T., Lago, M., McConville, A. J., Naumann S., Pieterse, M., Rayment, M., and A. Varma(2011) "The Social Dimension of Biodiversity Policy: Final Report" for the European Commission, DG Environment under contract: ENV.G.1/FRA/2006/0073 – 2nd, pages vii-205, Venice/Brussels, February 2011

Language
English
Author(s)
Paulo A. L. D. Nunes (FEEM)
Helen Ding (FEEM)
Andrea Ghermand (FEEM)
Matt Rayment (GHK)
Adarsh Varma (GHK)
Mavoureen Pieterse (GHK)
Patrick ten Brink (IEEP)
Andrew J. McConville (IEEP)
Eden Cottee-Jones (IEEP)
Funding
Publisher
Year
2011
Dimension
231 pp.
Project ID
1750-33
Table of Contents

Executive Summary
Section I: The Links between Biodiversity and Employment
1 Linkages between Employment and Biodiversity - The Conceptual Model
1.1 Employment and Biodiversity
1.2 Implications for the Study
2 Mapping the Links between Ecosystem Services and Employment
2.1 Ecosystem Services and Economic Activity
2.2 Links between Ecosystem Services and Different Sectors
2.3 Quantifying Employment Linked to Ecosystem Services
3 Determining the Links between Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Employment
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Links between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
3.3 Caveats to the Links between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
3.3.1 The Vulnerability of Ecosystem Services to Changes in Biodiversity
3.3.2 Substitutability
Substitution of provisioning services
3.4 Implications for Sectoral Economic Activity and Employment
4 Analysis of Jobs Dependent on Biodiversity
4.1 Jobs in Biodiversity Conservation
4.1.1 In the EU
4.1.2 Outside the EU
4.2 Wider Links between Employment and Biodiversity
4.3 Qualitative Aspects of Biodiversity/Employment Links
4.3.1 The Quality of Jobs
Agriculture
Forestry
Fisheries
Conservation and eco-tourism
Conclusions on Qualitative Aspects of Employment
5 Case Studies to Illustrate Biodiversity/Employment Links
5.1 European Case Studies
5.1.1 Amvrakikos Case Study - Greece
5.1.2 Danube Delta Case Study - Romania
5.1.3 Doñana Case Study - Spain
5.2 Global Case Studies
5.2.1 Cod Fishing – Eastern Canada
5.2.2 The Maldives
5.2.3 Lake Victoria’s Fishing Industry
5.2.4 Miombo Woodlands - Africa
6 Implications of Biodiversity Conservation for Employment
6.1 Synergies and Trade-offs – Overall Evidence of Whether Biodiversity Conservation Supports Jobs or Constrains Job Opportunities
6.1.1 The Trade-offs Associated with Protected Areas
6.1.2 The Synergies Available with Protected Areas
6.1.3 Maximising the Synergies and Managing the Trade-offs
6.2 Employment Implications of Biodiversity Loss
6.3 Opportunities for Job Creation through Biodiversity Conservation – Where are the Opportunities and How Many Jobs Can be Created?
6.3.1 Overview
6.3.2 Conservation Sector
6.3.3 Natural Resource Based Sectors
6.3.4 'Green New Deal' Programmes
Section II: Valuing Biodiversity Benefits for Rural Vulnerable Groups
7 Setting the Scene: Linkages Between Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Human Livelihoods
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Conceptual Model for Mapping the Linkages of Biodiversity Benefits and Human Livelihoods
7.3 A Hybrid Economic Model for Valuing the Magnitudes of Biodiversity Benefits on Human Livelihoods
7.4 Spatial Mapping of Biodiversity Benefits and Rural Vulnerable Groups
8 The Economics of Biodiversity and The Rural Poor in Europe
8.1 The Evidence of the Rural Poor and the Richness of Ecosystem and Biodiversity Resources
8.2 Identification of the Rural Poor in Europe
8.3 Biodiversity Spatial Profile in Europe
8.4 The Value of Ecosystems in Europe
The Economic Value Provided by European Forest Ecosystem
The Economic Value Provided by European Freshwater Ecosystem
The Economic Value Provided by European Coastal and Marine Ecosystems
9 Dependency of Human Livelihoods on Benefits of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in EUROPE
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Analyzing the Dependency of Human Livelihoods on Benefits of Biodiversity and Ecosystem
Services
9.2.1 Income-related Vulnerability and the Link to Biodiversity
9.2.2 Vulnerable Rural Communities and their Dependency on Biodiversity
9.2.3 Vulnerable Remote Communities and their Dependency on Biodiversity
10 Global Evidence on the Economic Significance of the Linkages between Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Human Livelihoods
10.1 Introduction to Global Case Studies on People’s Vulnerability to Ecosystem Loss
10.2 Forestry along Mexico’s Pacific Coast
10.3 Fisheries along the Mekong River, South-east Asia
10.4 Aquaculture in Thailand
Section III: Outlook and Policy Implications
11 Summary and Conclusions from Previous Sections
11.1 Section 1: Links between Biodiversity and Employment
11.2 Section 2: Valuing Biodiversity Benefits for Rural Vulnerable Groups
12 Policy Recommendations
12.1 International Policies
Relevant International Policies for the Social Dimension of Biodiversity
12.2 European Polices
Relevant European Policies for the Social Dimension of Biodiversity
12.2 Priority Actions for EU Policy Making
Section IV: Bibliography and Annex
References - Section I
References - Section II
References - Section III
Annex A – Details on the Employment Data
Global employment data
Assumptions for data aggregation
EU employment data
Assumptions for populating the typology table
Annex B – Links between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
1. Provisioning services
Provision of genetic resources
Provision of food and fibre
2 Regulating services
Pollination and seed dispersal
Invasion resistance
Climate regulation
Pest control
Disease control and human health
Waste management and detoxification
Water cycling, regulation and purification
Regulation of natural hazards
3 Supporting services
Nutrient cycling
Soil formation
Ecosystem Resilience
5 Cultural services
Annex C – Detailed Examples of Links between Employment, Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in Some Sectors
1 Sectors with Strong Links with Biodiversity through Ecosystem Services
1.1 Agriculture
1.2 Fisheries
1.3 Forestry
2 Sectors with medium links to biodiversity through ecosystem services
2.1 Pharmaceuticals
2.2 Fibre and forest products
Annex D – Figures Accompanying Global Case Studies
Annex E – Description of Economic Valuation Methodologies
Annex F – Economic Valuation Details for Forest, Freshwater and Marine/Coastal Ecosystems in Europe
1. Economic valuation of European Forest Ecosystem
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Economic Valuation of European Forest Ecosystems
(1) Mapping the provision of ecosystem goods and services by European forests
(2) Economic valuation of the ecosystem goods and services provided by European forests
(3) Valuation results
2. Economic Valuation of European Freshwater Ecosystems
2.1 The dataset of freshwater ecosystems valuations
2.2 Specification of the meta-regression model
2.3 Valuation results
3 The Recreational Value of the European Coastal and Marine Ecosystems
3.1 The dataset of coastal and marine ecosystems values
3.2 Specification of the meta-regression model
3.3 Valuation results
Annex G - The Econometric Specifications in the Valuation
Annex H - GIS maps

Keywords
Greece, Danube Delta, Romania, Doñana, Spain, Eastern Canada, The Maldives, Lake Victoria, Miombo Woodlands, Africa, Mexico, Pacific Coast, Mekong River, South-east Asia, Thailand, Europe, case studies